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|Title:||Energy Drinks and Myocardial Ischemia: A Review of Case Reports||Authors:||Lippi, Giuseppe
|Keywords:||Acute coronary syndrome;Caffeine;Energy drinks;Myocardial infarction;Myocardial ischemia||Keywords Plus:||UNITED-STATES;CONSUMPTION;CAFFEINE;ADOLESCENTS;THROMBOSIS;RESPONSES;ADULTS||Mesh headings:||Energy Drinks;ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction||Secondary Mesh headings:||Adolescent;Adult;Animals;Cardiotoxicity;Humans;Male;Myocardium;Prognosis;Risk Assessment;Risk Factors;Ventricular Function;Young Adult||Issue Date:||Jul-2016||Publisher:||HUMANA PRESS INC||Journal:||Cardiovascular toxicology||Abstract:||
The use and abuse of energy drinks (EDs) is constantly increasing worldwide. We performed a systematic search in Medline, Scopus and Web of Science to identify evidence about the potential link between these beverages and myocardial ischemia. Overall, 8 case reports could be detected, all of which described a realistic association between large intake of EDs and episodes of myocardial ischemia. Interestingly, no additional triggers of myocardial ischemia other than energy drinks could be identified in the vast majority of cases. Some plausible explanations can be brought in support of this association. Most of the biological effects of EDs are seemingly mediated by a positive inotropic effect on cardiac function, which entails increase in heart rate, cardiac output and contractility, stroke volume and arterial blood pressure. Additional biological abnormalities reported after EDs intake include increased platelet aggregation, endothelial dysfunction, hyperglycemia as well as an increase in total cholesterol, triglycerides and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Although a causal relationship between large consumption of EDs and myocardial ischemia cannot be definitely established so far, concerns about the cardiovascular risk of excessive consumption of these beverages are seemingly justified.
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